Antropology - Part 1

1.1 Meaning, scope and development of Anthropology.

1.2 Relationships with other disciplines: Social Sciences, Behavioural Sciences, Life Sciences, Medical Sciences, Earth Sciences and Humanities.

1.3 Main branches of Anthropology, their scope and relevance:

  • Social- cultural Anthropology
  • Biological Anthropology
  • Archaeological Anthropology
  • Linguistic Anthropology

1.4 Human Evolution and emergence of Man:

  • Biological and Cultural factors in human evolution
  • Theories of Organic Evolution (Pre- Darwinian, Darwinian and Post-Darwinian)
  • Synthetic theory of evolution; Brief outline of terms and concepts of evolutionary biology (Doll’s rule, Cope’s rule, Gause’s rule, parallelism, convergence, adaptive radiation, and mosaic evolution)

1.5 Characteristics of Primates; Evolutionary Trend and Primate Taxonomy; Primate Adaptations; (Arboreal and Terrestrial) Primate Taxonomy; Primate Behaviour; Tertiary and Quaternary fossil primates; Living Major Primates; Comparative Anatomy of Man and Apes; Skeletal changes due to erect posture and its implications.

1.6 Phylogenetic status, characteristics and geographical distribution of the following:

  • Plio-pleistocene hominids in South and East Africa – Australopithecines
  • Homo erectus: Africa ( Paranthropus ), Europe ( Homo erectus heidelbergensis ), Asia ( Homo erectus javanicus , Homo erectus pekinensis )
  • Neanderthal Man- La-Chapelle-aux-saints (Classical type), Mt. Carmel (Progressive type) Rhodesian man
  • Homo sapiens — Cromagnon, Grimaldi and Chancelede

1.7 The biological basis of life: The Cell, DNA structure and replication, Protein Synthesis, Gene, Mutation, Chromosomes, and Cell Division.

1.8 (a) Principles of Prehistoric Archaeology. Chronology: Relative and Absolute Dating methods.
(b) Cultural Evolution- Broad Outlines of Prehistoric cultures:

  • Paleolithic
  • Mesolithic
  • Neolithic
  • Chalcolithic
  • Copper-Bronze Age
  • Iron Age

2.1 The Nature of Culture: The concept and characteristics of culture and civilization; Ethnocentrism vis-à-vis cultural Relativism.

2.2 The Nature of Society: Concept of Society; Society and Culture; Social Institutions; Social groups; and Social stratification.

2.3 Marriage: Definition and universality; Laws of marriage (endogamy, exogamy, hypergamy, hypogamy, incest taboo); Types of marriage (monogamy, polygamy, polyandry, group marriage). Functions of marriage; Marriage regulations (preferential, prescriptive and proscriptive); Marriage payments (bride wealth and dowry).

2.4 Family: Definition and universality; Family, household and domestic groups; functions of family; Types of family (from the perspectives of structure, blood relation, marriage, residence and succession); Impact of urbanization, industrialization and feminist movements on family.

2.5 Kinship: Consanguinity and Affinity; Principles and types of descent (Unilineal, Double, Bilateral, Ambilineal); Forms of descent groups (lineage, clan, phratry, moiety and kindred); Kinship terminology (descriptive and classificatory); Descent, Filiation and Complimentary Filiation; Descent and Alliance.

3. Economic organization: Meaning, scope and relevance of economic anthropology; Formalist and Substantivist debate; Principles governing production, distribution and exchange (reciprocity, redistribution and market), in communities, subsisting on hunting and gathering, fishing, swiddening, pastoralism, horticulture, and agriculture; globalization and indigenous economic systems.

4. Political organization and Social Control: Band, tribe, chiefdom, kingdom and state; concepts of power, authority and legitimacy; social control, law and justice in simple societies.

5. Religion: Anthropological approaches to the study of religion (evolutionary, psychological and functional); monotheism and polytheism; sacred and profane; myths and rituals; forms of religion in tribal and peasant societies (animism, animatism, fetishism, naturism and totemism); religion, magic and science distinguished; magico- religious functionaries (priest, shaman, medicine man, sorcerer and witch).

6. Anthropological theories:

  • Classical evolutionism (Tylor, Morgan and Frazer)
  • Historical particularism (Boas); Diffusionism (British, German and American)
  • Functionalism (Malinowski); Structural- functionlism (Radcliffe-Brown)
  • Structuralism (L’evi – Strauss and E. Leach)
  • Culture and personality (Benedict, Mead, Linton, Kardiner and Cora – du Bois)
  • Neo – evolutionism (Childe, White, Steward, Sahlins and Service)
  • Cultural materialism (Harris)
  • Symbolic and interpretive theories (Turner, Schneider and Geertz)
  • Cognitive theories (Tyler, Conklin)
  • Post- modernism in anthropology

7. Culture, language and communication: Nature, origin and characteristics of language; verbal and non-verbal communication; social context of language use.

8. Research methods in anthropology:

  • Fieldwork tradition in anthropology.
  • Distinction between technique, method and methodology.
  • Tools of data collection: observation, interview, schedules, questionnaire, Case study, genealogy, life-history, oral history, secondary sources of information, participatory methods.
  • Analysis, interpretation and presentation of data.

9.1 Human Genetics – Methods and Application: Methods for study of genetic principles in man-family study (pedigree analysis, twin study, foster child, co-twin method, cytogenetic method, chromosomal and karyo-type analysis), biochemical methods, immunological methods, D.N.A. technology and recombinant technologies.

9.2 Mendelian genetics in man-family study, single factor, multifactor, lethal, sub-lethal and polygenic inheritance in man.

9.3 Concept of genetic polymorphism and selection, Mendelian population, Hardy-Weinberg law; causes and changes which bring down frequency – mutation, isolation, migration, selection, inbreeding and genetic drift. Consanguineous and non-consanguineous mating, genetic load, genetic effect of consanguineous and cousin marriages.

9.4 Chromosomes and chromosomal aberrations in man, methodology.

  • Numerical and structural aberrations (disorders).
  • Sex chromosomal aberrations – Klinefelter (XXY), Turner (XO), Super female (XXX), intersex and other syndromic disorders.
  • Autosomal aberrations – Down syndrome, Patau, Edward and Cri-du-chat syndromes.
  • Genetic imprints in human disease, genetic screening, genetic counseling, human DNA profiling, gene mapping and genome study.

9.5 Race and racism, biological basis of morphological variation of non-metric and metric characters. Racial criteria, racial traits in relation to heredity and environment; biological basis of racial classification, racial differentiation and race crossing in man.

9.6 Age, sex and population variation as genetic marker- ABO, Rh blood groups, HLA Hp, transferring, Gm, blood enzymes. Physiological characteristics-Hb level, body fat, pulse rate, respiratory functions and sensory perceptions in different cultural and socio-economic groups.

9.7 Concepts and methods of Ecological Anthropology. Bio-cultural Adaptations – Genetic and Non- genetic factors. Man’s physiological responses to environmental stresses: hot desert, cold, high altitude climate.

9.8 Epidemiological Anthropology: Health and disease. Infectious and non-infectious diseases. Nutritional deficiency related diseases.

10. Concept of human growth and development: stages of growth – pre-natal, natal, infant, childhood, adolescence, maturity, senescence.

  • Factors affecting growth and development genetic, environmental, biochemical, nutritional, cultural and socio-economic
  • Ageing and senescence. Theories and observations – biological and chronological longevity. Human physique and somatotypes. Methodologies for growth studies

11.1 Relevance of menarche, menopause and other bioevents to fertility. Fertility patterns and differentials

11.2 Demographic theories- biological, social and cultural.

11.3 Biological and socio-ecological factors influencing fecundity, fertility, natality and mortality.

12. Applications of Anthropology: Anthropology of sports, Nutritional anthropology, Anthropology in designing of defence and other equipments, Forensic Anthropology, Methods and principles of personal identification and reconstruction, Applied human genetics – Paternity diagnosis, genetic counseling and eugenics, DNA technology in diseases and medicine, serogenetics and cytogenetics in reproductive biology.